本篇英国essay代写-Early Byzantine Period in Plastina讲了罗马军队征服了地中海周围的地区;其西部完全是拉丁文化和希腊东部的一部分。为了更好地控制这个国家，罗马在个人之间分享了帝国，奥古斯都为高级总督，凯撒为奥古斯都的继任者。本篇essay代写由51due代写平台整理，供大家参考阅读。
We have the knowledge that Byzantine Empire is another name for the Eastern Roman Empire. The Roman army conquered the area around Mediterranean Sea; with its west part was totally of Latin Culture and east part of Greek’s. To better control the country, Roman shared the empire between individuals, and there was Augustus for the senior governor and Caesars for the successor to Augustus. In 330, Constantine the first moved to Byzantium where it was the route to communicate Europe and Asia, and founded the second Rome. The capital was Constantinople.
Christianity was favored by Constantine, but for Byzantine it was not exclusive religion. It takes a long time to make Christianity the religion of the empire, while the state church is what we called Eastern Orthodox Church. The doctrine was not determined until the first seven ecumenical councils made the decision. In 388, people of the empire were made to assume “the name of Catholic Christian”. " The unity of the Empire meant also unity in the church. " (Vasiliev, 146).
Eastern Orthodox Church has been the state church for Byzantine Empire and there were no more religion representing the empire. Later in around 6th to 7th Century when Islamic was established, developing and enlarging its area, which forbid worshiping icons, Leo III made a decision to destroy the icons throughout the empire, causing the chaos of the empire. At the same time, the conflict between Byzantine’s Church and Roman Church became deeper. Therefore we can draw the conclusion that the religious situation was complex at that time.
During the early period of Byzantine, the economy was stronger than that of the west and even the best among the whole Europe. The Europe cannot catch up with Byzantine until the late Middle Ages. As the empire was in the route from Asia to Europe and communicates the continent of Asia, Africa and Europe, the empire owned a big trading network. Especially the empire was in the position which is part of the Silk Road, bringing the flourishing economy of the empire. This could last until the 6th century, when the Arab was conquering the peninsula and plague took place. From that on, the economy was no longer as prosperous as before, and the situation lasted for a very long time.
All in all, the early period of Byzantine Empire was prosperous and last for longer than the West Roman Empire, who was conquered by the barbaric. The existence of Byzantine keeps the culture of ancient Rome and Greek remain, which was great treasure for the west. However, the location of Byzantine led the empire to be rich, while it also brought the empire complexity including religion and politics, setting a block to prevent the empire from developing.
Vasiliev, Alexander A. History of the Byzantine Empire. University of Wisconsin Press, 1958.
本篇英国essay代写-Hong Kong and its democracy讲了香港及其民主问题，尤其是以占领中央的大事为题，引起了国内外的广泛关注。在这段时间，媒体发表了一些文章，其意见与大陆人们所认为的大不相同，这可能是由于对中国的误解及其与香港的关系所致。本篇essay代写由51due代写平台整理，供大家参考阅读。
In my paper I am going to talk about the issue of Hong Kong and its democracy, especially based on the great event of occupying the Central, which has attracted great amount of attention from home and abroad. In this period of time the media published some articles with the views that were quite different from what people in mainland thought, which can be caused by the misunderstanding of China and its relationship with Hong Kong. Particularly I found an article about the comments from BBC, which is titled with "Hong Kong Protests: Has Beijing won?" I am going to analyze this article by asking the question: "what does 'Beijing won' mean, with the help of the facts that you may not know due to the limitations of the media that is not based on China totally, by which I will clarify what the event really was to you. Here's the part of the article which is totally copied from bbc.com.
Hong Kong protests: Has Beijing won?
Some say Xi Jinping has won in Hong Kong. I doubt if that's how he sees it.
As he watches pictures of traffic flowing through the heart of Admiralty today, he will certainly feel relieved that he didn't lose. But he is fighting a multi-level multi-player game. He has merely survived a level.
This is not to say he didn't play adroitly.
By leaving the protests to burn out amidst their own divisions and the weariness of the wider Hong Kong public, he deprived the umbrella movement of the oxygen of repression and demonstrated that Beijing's tool kit for dealing with citizen defiance runs beyond tanks or truncheons.
What's more, he made no concessions. The lesson that Beijing does not bow to pressure was delivered not just to Hong Kong but to the world.
But the only real victory Beijing can claim in the entire episode is not in Hong Kong but at home on the mainland where, barring a few brave souls who raised their voices on behalf of Hong Kong democracy, little stirred.
This is an important victory for the propaganda machine, which successfully presented the protesters as a mix of spoilt children narrowly pursuing their own interests at the expense of the public good, and cunning enemies of the state in league with foreign forces.
"Any person who cares about Hong Kong and about the people of Hong Kong should say 'NO' to this hijacking of the general public will for personal objectives," said the Communist Party flagship newspaper, the People's Daily.
Champions of democracy everywhere take note - the aspirations of the young protesters of Hong Kong did not immediately resonate with their counterparts on the mainland.
Despite being beneficiaries of globalization and despite having ever greater contact with the West through university education and holidays abroad, many young Chinese are suspicious of idealistic political messages.
Since childhood, they have been exposed to a historical narrative which dwells on China's humiliation at the hands of foreigners.
Many now echo their government's suspicion of street protests, social chaos and foreign ideas peddled by people whose hidden agenda may be to divide China and keep it down.
According to China's best known military theorist, Sun Tzu (writing two-and-a-half thousand years ago), the best kind of victory is won without fighting.
Seeing the mainland stable throughout two-and-a-half months of street protest in Hong Kong is just such a victory.
But provoking thousands of citizens onto the streets in the first place is, by the same token, no kind of victory at all. Beijing brought the umbrella movement on itself.
Here are some close analysis that are to show you what the author's logic is. “But he is fighting a multi-level multi-player game. He has merely survived a level.” This is a rhetorical expression. The “multi-level” and “multi-player” means Xi Jinping is now at the battle of winning Honk Kong, which is to have many competitive elements that for him it is hard for him to win. The sentence is to express this idea vividly.
“By leaving the protests to burn out amidst their own divisions and the weariness of the wider Hong Kong public, he deprived the umbrella movement of the oxygen of repression and demonstrated that Beijing's tool kit for dealing with citizen defiance runs beyond tanks or truncheons.” This sentence writes the description of how the central government is dealing with the protests. Here the writer uses some rhetoric expressions vividly by the words “umbrella movement” and “the oxygen of repression to render that China government is going to persecute the protests, but China central government didn’t send any police to Hong Kong because Hong Kong in many areas governed themselves. Without using those words, the sentence will not be so pungent
“What's more, he made no concessions. The lesson that Beijing does not bow to pressure was delivered not just to Hong Kong but to the world.” In this sentence, the author uses “what’s more” to make China government more critical because it can show that he has worse mistake that should be criticized by the world. Maybe in the author’s eyes, it is still that there are no concessions on the way Beijing government deals with protests. The “lesson” is still a metaphor, which means “announcement” or something. That is to say, in author’s view, the government shows her tough to not only Hong Kong but the world. And still the fact is that those who lead the protesting movement have been banned to go to some countries because these countries government take him as the person who will destroy their public security. Thus the fact is that Beijing government never shows anything against the world in this event.
“But the only real victory Beijing can claim in the entire episode is not in Hong Kong but at home on the mainland where, barring a few brave souls who raised their voices on behalf of Hong Kong democracy, little stirred.” Here appears the word “but” to show the importance of the sentence, which is the discounting term to show the idea that Beijing really get their victory on putting some people who are for the occupying in jails. Here the author is to say Beijing government takes some measures that of dictatorship to control the condition or public opinion. Still the fact is that there’s no evidence that the central government has arrested anyone who express the support for Hong Kong people’s occupying, because it has never happened. On the contrary, the public opinion is not to support the occupying, because those who support occupying were criticized by the public with sharp words. In this time the central government stands with their people.
“Despite being beneficiaries of globalization and despite having ever greater contact with the West through university education and holidays abroad, many young Chinese are suspicious of idealistic political messages.” There uses two “despite” to be the discounting word that to imply the opinion that will occur at the following expressions, which is led by “many”, which is a guarding term to prove that there is the situation that really occur just like what the author has mentioned.
“But provoking thousands of citizens onto the streets in the first place is, by the same token, no kind of victory at all. Beijing brought the umbrella movement on itself.” Here again using “but”, not to mention, to highlight the author’s view that will mention in the main clause. “no victory at all” is the evaluate term, which is to stress that the behavior that is mentioned before is nothing like a victory.
The whole article has no assuring, but from words to words, the author is quite sure about her idea. Maybe it is because it is an article that published on the official media, it cannot be too subjective.
Here we are going to reconstruct the argument that the author has written out.
“But the only real victory Beijing can claim in the entire episode is not in Hong Kong but at home on the mainland where, barring a few brave souls who raised their voices on behalf of Hong Kong democracy, little stirred.” In this sentence, the author doesn’t give a clear chain of reasoning; therefore, the premise of her conclusion is not clear. We can try to find the reasoning chain as follow:
The victory for Beijing is to stop people to stand on behalf of Hong Kong’s event
Beijing government has done it well, but not in Hong Kong or the world
∴ Beijing can claim their victory on the mainland
From this chain we can find that the in author’s eyes, the mission for China’s mainland government is to control the public opinion about the event, and she can do anything even it is too far. But there are some problems upon the reasoning:
Firstly, the government has never put anyone into the jail due to expressing any opinion about Occupying the Central. We cannot find any evidence from media all over the world, because it never happens.
Secondly, controlling the public opinion has nonsense to the Beijing government, because for China’s government, the most important thing is to maintain the unification of the country. Repressing people’s voice has nothing to Chinas victory, or China has no competition to anyone except for those who are ready to damage Hong Kong’s public security and stability on the excuse of democracy. But since Hong Kong is a self-governed place, the central government doesn’t do too much to stop the event.
Thirdly, the author wrongly estimated that people are on the wrong side against the government. The truth is that people on the mainland are wholly support the government to take measures to stop the protesting, because it has greatly damaged Hong Kong’s economy. Netizens voluntarily criticize the people who are attempting to make Hong Kong out of China’s government by instigating people to parade on the street.
The misunderstanding of China’s government is because people don’t fully understand that China is a governed by dictatorship. However, the truth is China’s government is not as what media described. People in China enjoy fully human right.
Thus we are able to have the knowledge that "Beijing won" has nonsense from my analysis of the logic that how the author prove Beijing won. I have analyzed how the author give out her idea and what is her premise to draw out her conclusion. However, the premise she write to get her conclusion is wrong mainly because her premise is not the fact. So the conclusion that she draw that Beijing won in mainland by barring people who raised their voices for Hong Kong’s protests is totally wrong. That is what we position now we should stand.
Definition Essay是英国比较常见的一种文体，但是在写作中也还是有一些需要大家去注意的地方，大家在写作中可千万不要乱写哦，今天，51due代写平台将为大家讲解英国论文写作-Definition Essay写作。
对于如何写好一篇Essay ，我们就要先了解下其结构，一般的Essay包括三个部分:Introduction，Body, Conclusion（其实有的Essay还会涉及到第四个部分，就是Reference，当然这就是一些比较正式的Essay啦！）。所以当我们拿到一个topic的时候，我们首先要去查资料，去看下怎么样把这个topic写出深度，然后想好对应的结构以及每部分的一些点。
Introduction 分为两部分: 第一部分是background,引出topic的内容；第二部分是body中的主要内容，也就是这篇essay的内容和段落排序。其字数一般占全文的10%左右即可。
本篇英国essay代写- The Examined Life讲了诺齐克把正义和事实摆在幸福或情感享受之前，这是一个标志哲学家是一个脚踏实地的人的标志。他强调如何立即或临时的喜悦与性格的稳定性相反。本篇essay代写由51due代写平台整理，供大家参考阅读。
The seed of exaggerated importance of happiness has been sown by our unseemly focus on personal feelings or gains, as Nozick notes in The Examined Life. The writer is opposed to putting happiness first, especially when happiness, as he explains, comes up against the right direction of life. This essay is to center on the chapter 10 on happiness in The Examined Life, and delve into the thought experiments in it. On top of that, comments will be made on it as a way to bring out my own opinion on happiness, one of the major goals in one’ s life.
It is discernible that Nozick puts righteousness and facts before happiness or emotional enjoyment, and this comes as a mark indicating the philosopher is a down-to-earth man of integrity. He places emphasis on how immediate or temporary delight is in contrast to stability of disposition and adds that happiness can’t last long.
Nozick brings a thought experiment in his work as a backing-up for his argument. He puts forward an imaginary machine that can create such beautiful feelings or emotional experiences as poetry, peace and love. All those groundless things are isolated from reality and can be adapted to one’ s own needs——for example, realizing your dreams in an illusionary way. We can undoubtedly derive happiness and enjoyment from such machine, though, in an unsound fashion. It can reflect what on earth we by and large focus on, happiness itself or delightful facts ?
Nozick stresses that many of us may say no to this machine as what we actually attach highly importance to is our link to facts. In this sense, the imaginary experiences mentioned above can’t hold water owing to their tenuous basis. It might never cross our mind that we unwittingly put the external world in perspective with personal faith, feelings or thinking. And such behavior is usually driven by our pursuit of value, which inspires us to weigh pros and cons and make up our mind. Whether we are inclined to own such a machine, our link to reality, as it were, is of considerable significance. In this connection, we naturally refuse to settle for the false dreams that only come true in a fancied way. Apart from that, the sense of solitude may exact a heavy toll on us since no one in real life could share such distorted happiness.
The other thought experiment “the direction of happiness” illustrates that it is tempting to go for an upward life that predicts a wealth of happiness in future rather than a downward life that buries obscure troubles or risks in store. And this stands as a reason for our preference for righteousness to euphoria. Moreover, a majority of people are willing to back away from happiness to tailor the direction of life into an uplifting way. Nozick is a great believer who holds life is much more than happiness, which also includes a diversity of feelings or emotions whose value fails to reside in joy.
I sit in the empathy with Nozick as my ideas about happiness are echoed by his. When the topic comes along before me on whether happiness lies in the heart of life, I dare say all kinds of experiences, both spiritual and physical, be it love, being love, sadness, anger, disappointment or guilt, contribute to our complete life as indispensable elements, which go down in our memory, last lifelong and in the end are tucked away in tombs with our bodies.
Imagine what if we embrace a life full of happiness or other positive feelings. We are highly likely to rush into euphoria and live in rapport with the surrounding people. Such sought-after life, however, is prone to be transformed into a monotonous one where only happiness can be found. It goes beyond doubt that triumphs with flying colours, widespread reputation, sensual joy and wealth can happiness deliver to us. But if our life bristles with all those blessings without any bane, we tend to take them as granted and flunk to reap joy from them at all. What’ s worse is that such apparently attractive life is doomed to be found boring and tedious, since no other feelings function as some sort of complement or contrast.
Besides, an excessive emphasis on or pursuit of happiness threatens to undermine life in that it may cloud our eyes when we face the dilemma between temporary enjoyment and tough achievement. Arguably, this may block away form us a host of beneficial opportunities or even remarkable successes. We are inclined to slack off if too much priority is accorded to immediate happiness, and just let go opportunities to embark on the track toward success. As such, happiness by no means comes as a benefit or weal to us. It can serve as a devil sometimes.
Furthermore, as the saying goes, everything comes to him who waits. Only those who have come through waves of ups and downs can stand well above par. It is a universal truth that a man is expected to triumph who has been beset with tough tasks or even failures but gone the distance and managed to negotiate and surmount them. A smooth and blessed life barely breeds seasoned talents. I prefer to take happiness as a kind of reward to people who have struggled for their dreams, not a stepping stone toward success.
Last but not least, it is worth mentioning that contribution made by a person to society is the very meaning of life, in no way happiness, a form of his own enjoyment. As a part of human group, we each is tasked to bring benefits and happiness to the others, sometimes even at the cost of our own interests. Self-sacrifice, as I understand, deserves to be billed as the core meaning of life instead of self-actualization or personal happiness. Only a man who unconditionally helps others, a practice that extends his value into others’ life, carries through the meaning of life and deserves to be engraved in history and memory of people.
本篇英国essay代写-make judgments about a certain idea讲了当我们处于研究过程中时，我们首先要阅读以前有关这个话题的许多文献。通过这个过程，我们可以获得一些关于我们将要研究的主题知识。当我们进行实验并收集一些计时器时，我们已经假定结论应该是什么样的，我们经常会试图证明我们的假设。本篇essay代写由51due代写平台整理，供大家参考阅读。
Objectivity is to make judgments about a certain idea or concept without any prejudice or bias. According to the readings, objectivity is the opposite of subjectivity. While subjective means that the idea exists only in the mind (Trust in Numbers, pg 3), objective things are those that exist in the real world.
I believe that 100% objective research is very hard to achieve because the bias that is inherent in our nature is difficult to achieve. As the author of the reading “Trust in Numbers” argued, “mechanical objectivity can never be purely mechanical”. He put forward an example of a command “please shut the door”. Then he explained that this action could not be done without the listener having some sort of background knowledge on what door is. The listener of the command could also raise questions on why the door should be closed or opened. I believe that it is inherent in the human nature that we ask questions about the ideas and objects that we see around us and by incorporating those questions and believes, or even the knowledge we have gained before, we are adding subjective aspects to a so called objective idea.
The same reason applies for researches. When we are in the process of research, we first have to read many previous literature works on this topic. Through this process, we have already gained some knowledge about the topic that we will research. When we conduct the experiment and gather some timers, we have already made an assumption of what the conclusion should look like and we will often try to prove our assumption. That is, we are often, to some degree, biased toward our assumptions even before we design our experiments. I believe that it should be easier to achieve absolute objectivity if the researcher had absolutely no previous knowledge or experience in that topic before. That research may not even know what data analysis is or what the names of the experiment equipment are called. Of course, in reality, this could never be tested because no one can conduct a research on a certain topic without extensive background knowledge and studies. Therefore, in reality, I argue that pure objectivity could not be achieved in researches.
For example, when I was interning in banks during summer vacations, I was once given a task of researching about a certain stock by my boss. Before I conducted my research, I have read about other analysts’ reports and have had some idea on whether this stock is preferable or one should sell this stock. Even though different analysts might have different opinions on this stock, I can still see how many analysts voted in favor of the stock and how many deemed this stock unfavorable. Then I am biased toward their ideas. Another situation is when I was given a stock, I should have at least some background knowledge on the firm or the industry the firm is in. Even if I were given a very advanced and scientific concept about, for example, a newly invented biological equipment, I should know something about how high-tech equipment is in the market, or how the biochemistry market is performing. From my own personal experience, I have never really achieved objective research because I will be already biased before I actually conduct a research.
The concept of objectivity is related with team formation to a high degree. When we are in a team, we would often act as if we belonged to the group and we will worry about how the rest of the team members thought of us. We will act in such a way that we wanted the others to believe who we are. For example, when I work on team works in the business school, I would act as if I were more mature and as if I were really a business professional instead of a student. When the team members are talking about a certain topic, people would sometimes conform to the team and agree just because they do not want to look like outsiders. This notion and this action made team discussions not 100% objective. In discussions, sometimes we follow suit and agree to the most professional team member, or the team member with highest grades instead of seeing the evidence from research data. The same logic happened with the author’s observations in the “Average American Epilogue”, page 285. The author stated that when they gave out surveys, some individuals wanted to be a part of the team, so “disagreement blended easily with accommodation to social surveying practices.” In that case, the society and the responses from other residents is comparable to a team. There are some people who give up their objectivity and acted so that they could be included in a society. Therefore, 100% objectivity in a team work setting is also hard to achieve.